2002 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index says Africa is by
far the most corrupt place on earth. The 2002 Global Fraud Survey by
consultancy firm Ernst and Young also raises big questions on corruption in
Africa. Business in Africa asked forensic accountants Mario Fazekas and Wayne
Fergusson of Ernst and Young to justify these worrying perceptions
Transparency International (TI) Corruption Perception Index 2002 Index lists
102 countries with only two African countries scoring higher than 5 (Botswana
with a score of 6.4 and Namibia with a score of 5.7). Twenty other African
countries rate less than 5 with Nigeria scoring 1.6 and coming in as the second
most corrupt country in the world,
behind only Bangladesh.
Corruption is one of the oldest white-collar crimes known to mankind. The
tradition of paying off public officials or company employees for
treatment goes as far back as
biblical times. One of the most infamous cases of bribery was that
of Judas Iscariot, the
disciple who betrayed Jesus
The elders of Jerusalem had asked Judas to disclose the location of
Christ during the night so that He could be captured and executed. In return
for 30 pieces of silver, Judas led an armed guard to the garden of Gethsemane,
where he identified Jesus by kissing Him on the cheek and whispering "Master".
The city elders then crucified Christ. Judas was so distraught about the
betrayal Jesus and hanged himself shortly after.
African countries have had to endure many recent high-profile
corruption scandals. In South Africa, a controversy over a US $5.5 billion arms
deal with contractors in Germany, Italy, Sweden and the UK dominated the
headlines this year. Close links between subcontractors and high-ranking
government officials were exposed. Though the ANC government denied
impropriety, the scandal cast a long shadow.
In Lesotho, court proceedings in the $8 billion Lesotho
Highlands Water Project case began in 2001.The former head of the Lesotho
Highlands Development Authority, responsible for awarding construction
contracts since 1986, faces multiple charges of bribery and fraud. Charges
are also being brought against the beneficiary contractors including some of
the world's leading construction companies from Canada, France, Germany, Italy,
South Africa, Switzerland and UK who allegedly offered the bribes.
The murder of Carlos Cardoso, one of Mozambique's most
respected journalists, was a sharp reminder of the risk to reporters who
attempt to secure evidence of corruption by senior officials. Cardoso 's
investigation into a US $14 million bank fraud, linked to the privatisation of
Banco Commercial de Mocambique under an IMF structural adjustment programme, is
widely thought to have led to his assassination in November 2000.
There were revelations in October 2002 that the government of
Malawi spent US $2.5 million on limousines for ministers' and consequently
soured relations with donors.
In Nigeria, a series of corruption scandals that broke out in
the legislature, the most prominent being the impeachment in August 2000 of
Senate President Chuba Okadigbo, who was alleged to have misused public funds.
President Obasanjo views one of his major tasks as retrieving the billions of
dollars embezzled by former dictator General Abacha.
Ghana's high courts are currently burdened by ongoing cases of
corruption involving high-level officials of the Rawlings government. A former
finance minister has already been jailed for stealing nearly $2 million.
In Morocco, parliament set up a commission of inquiry in 2001
to investigate the apparent diversion of more than US $1 billion of state funds
over the course of a decade through state bank Credit Immobilier et Hotelier.
Burundi's parliamentary commission of inquiry
reported in 2001 that 'theft, fraudulent management, corruption and
embezzlement are rampant in the public sector '.
A controversial UN report in April 2001 on the looting of
natural resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo incriminated members of
Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni 's immediate family.
In Zimbabwe, a series of press articles alleged
massive kickbacks in the tendering for Harare 's new international
airport involving President Mugabe's nephew and others.
country, while some commentators take issue with the idea that a country can be
treated as a brand. |
The man behind Britain's controversial rebranding, Geoff Mulgan, has a simple
riposte: National identities don't emerge from nature. People create them.
"Take the Union Jack, for example. It didn't just grow from the soil. The same
point can be made about the United States. The American flag, Uncle Sam, "The
Star-Spangled Banner" - all were consciously designed to "brand" the new
republic," says Mulgan.
Veteran South African marketer Chris Moerdyk agrees, saying that what many
people, especially politicians, don't realise is that the ultimate success of
our business brands depends on the performance of Brand SA.
"Unfortunately, brands are not built on facts, but on perceptions," says
Moerdyk. "So, though it is refreshing to see politicians actually acknowledging
the importance of nurturing Brand SA, they need to lead by example in the same
way the board of directors of a company have to do to ensure the success of a
commercial brand. They need to commit themselves to putting the integrity of
our national brand ahead of political one-upmanship - and to understanding that
perceptions are not created by what you say, but how you say it."
But the signs are encouraging, he says. "If, a decade ago, the leaders of our
country were asked what a brand was they would probably have said it was
something painful cowboys did to cattle," says Moerdyk. "Now we have our head
of state writing an article about the importance of nurturing Brand SA."
Fact is, increasing numbers of countries across the world are already in the
process of rebranding and repositioning themselves - and, as British marketing
expert Fiona Gilmore points out, if you don't do it yourself, you'll end up
being positioned anyway by your competitors to their advantage, making it even
more difficult for you to control your economic destiny.
A list of nations looking to refashion their identities includes Canada, the
Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, New
Zealand, Australia, Britain and even the US of A. Spain rebranded itself using
Miro's "Espana" painting as a national logo, while Ireland shrugged off the
notion of pastures and pubs in favour of a sleek, high-tech look which has made
it one of the darlings of the global IT industry..
"It has been said that 46 of the largest 100 economies of the world today are
companies, not countries. We can think of the running of countries as being no
different from the running of a large company and therefore apply brand
thinking to countries. The potential for these countries to gain a niche
position in the global arena is there for the taking," wrote Gilmore in the
Journal of Brand Management earlier this year.
"In a world being shrunk by technology, countries, regions and even cities have
to compete with each other for tourism, investment, aid, buyers of their
products and services and even talent. So there's hardly a place left that
isn't thinking hard about its brand image, and most are in need of clear,
realistic strategies for communicating and promoting themselves, their culture,
their exports, their acts of policy and their contribution to the global
UK-based marketing expert Simon Anholt says marketing an entire country is
nothing new. In fact, he argues in a recent article in the Journal for Brand
Management, much of the wealth of rich countries in the past hundred years or
so has been generated through marketing.
Anholt defines marketing loosely as the ability to add attraction to exported
brands through country-of-origin effect, the increasingly sophisticated
techniques of marketing the country itself as a tourist brand, the marketing
skills which attract the brightest talent and biggest foreign investments, and
the acts of marketing coordination which ensure that consistent and attractive
messages about the country in general are communicated to the rest of the world
through acts of foreign policy and sporting and cultural activities.
And there's no better time than now for the world's developing nations to take
a leaf out the book of internationally-recognised brands like Coca-Cola,
Budwesier and BMW, says Anholt. "Poorer countries can use marketing skills to
graduate from being mere suppliers of low-margin unbranded commodities to brand
owners and branded destinations in their own right."
Marketing and branding countries goes much further than simple increasing
foreign investment, though. "Country as brand and its related disciplines have
the potential to do something which marketing has never really done before: to
make a major and direct impact on the fairer distribution of wealth. There is
justice in this - after all, branding has been directly involved in much of the
commercial activity which, during the last century, has helped to widen the gap
between rich and poor; it would seem appropriate if it could now turn some of
its attention towards reversing the trend," says Anholt.
What he suggests implies a radical shift in the future role of brands and
marketing in general. "One could well make a case for describing place
marketing as the industry's greatest challenge, and its biggest chance to
create a lasting and significant future role for itself beyond its traditional
boundaries of promoting products and services and helping rich companies get
richer," says Anholt.
It is a point well taken by South African president Thabo Mbeki, who has no
doubt that the country is a place of hope for a far broader audience than the
"We have the capacity to deal with this question which plagues everybody around
the world in different degrees: What are we going to do with the enormous
disparities in wealth, this and that and the other, without having a situation
of conflict erupt? The problem of those disparities exists in the United States
as much as it exists anywhere else, perhaps on a smaller scale. The rest of the
world wants us to succeed because success in South Africa is an investment in
success in their own countries," Mbeki told the IMC recently.
Buoyed by this level of support, Johnston and the IMC have assembled an
impressive list of backers. The IMC held its inaugural meeting in August 2000,
with a team of some 40 prominent leaders from both public and private sectors.
All members are appointed by the president himself, and hold office for three
Nine cabinet ministers and their director generals are on the council. Among
those from the private sector are political consultant Dr Frederik van Zyl
Slabbert, Barbara Masekela from De Beers, real estate leader Pam Golding,
Mavuso Msimang of SA Parks, musician Sibongile Khumalo, retired business leader
Dr Sam Motsuenyane, and Johnnic's Irene Charnley.
Several top Tanzanian officials, among them the Minister for
Tourism, were removed from office in 2000 as a result of investigations under
Tanzania's National Anti-Corruption Strategy.
In Egypt, a court convicted four MPs of involvement in a
multi-million dollar scandal and the Egyptian political scientist Saad el-Din
Ibrahim was sentenced to seven years imprisonment on charges that included
embezzlement and receiving unauthorized funds from foreign donors.
Kenya has consistently been perceived as extremely corrupt and
now Transparency International Kenya has published 'The Kenya Urban Bribery
Index'. This report presents preliminary analysis of a study by Transparency
International-Kenya on the magnitude of bribery in Kenya. Based on a survey in
which ordinary Kenyans report their daily encounters with corruption - who they
bribe, how much, and for what, the study is part of TI-Kenya's effort to inform
the anti-corruption effort in with objective, rigorous research.
This study seeks to go beyond perceptions of corruption to provide benchmarks
of integrity based on the actual incidence of corruption.
Ernst & Young publishes an international fraud survey
every two years and the eighth survey was published in November 2002. One of
the questions asked was 'What keeps you awake at night'?
What is Corruption?
Many people do not know what corruption is and if
we are to fight something we need to know exactly what it is. Corruption is one
of the three elements of Occupational Fraud (the other two being
Misappropriation of Assets and Fraudulent Financial statements). The
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners has broken corruption down into the
following four scheme types:
Conflict of interest: where a public official or
company employee has an undisclosed interest in another company and is either
selling to or buying from his employer. If he is selling to his employer it's
at inflated prices and if he is buying from his employer it's at a much-reduced
where an official or company employee accepts money or some other consideration
to engage in a particular course of action, or inaction. (The Southern African
Institute of Government Auditors published a Public Sector Fraud survey in 2002
and the results make interesting reading. Respondents were asked to rank frauds
affecting their departments in order of their frequency of occurrence. The top
fraud type for employees, management and outsiders was 'Bribes').
Illegal Gratuities: are not seen as bribes but
rather as a 'thank you' for doing business. This is still a bribe as the public
official or company employee knew that they would be getting the gratuity if
they did business with the particular vendor. The 'thank you' or reward is
normally an expensive item such as a fully paid holiday overseas for the
crooked employee and his whole family.
Economic Extortion: where an official or company
employee demands money or some other consideration to engage in a particular
course of action, or inaction.
Keep in mind that corruption is not
be limited to the public sector. Officers of large
companies may use its resources for private purposes,
and other employees may be party to the activities just
|| The survey conducted in March and April 2001 has been used to
estimate the magnitude, incidence and direct financial cost of bribery and
produce the Kenya Urban Bribery Index (KUBI) - a league table of the incidence
The Kenya Police tops the KUBI national
bribery league with an index score of 68.7 out of a maximum
score of 100. The Ministry of public works follows with a
markedly lower score of 41.0, implying that bribery in the
police force is much higher than any other institution. The
Immigration department ranks third with a score of 36.1, the
Ministry of Lands is fourth (34.8) followed closely by the
Nairobi City Council with an index score of 33. The others in
the worst 10 are the Judiciary (32.3), the Kenya Ports
Authority (29.3), Provincial Administration (29.0), and
Mombasa Municipal Council (28.7).
Ernst & Young 2002 International Fraud
Organisations were significantly more concerned about asset misappropriation
than any other type of fraud. About half were concerned about computer crime
and corruption and a third were concerned about organized crime, with only
21percent being concerned about financial statement fraud.
In our opinion people should be much more worried
about Corruption and Financial Statement fraud than Asset Misappropriation
In many countries there is a widespread feeling
that the public service has lost its way - that many elements within the public
sector are corrupt, and so are many of the private sector firms that transact
business with them. The public sees officials, and officials seem to see
themselves, as existing not to provide a service to the public, but as a body
that is not accountable to the public they profess to serve. The portrait may
be unfair, but the perception is widely held.
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) conducted a survey of its
members in 1996 and again in 2002. In these surveys it was found that
approximately 85 percent of all fraud cases were asset misappropriation
schemes, 10 percent were corruption schemes and about 5 percent
were financial statement fraud schemes. The comparison of total losses
suffered, however, were as follows: Asset Misappropriation schemes accounted
for only 16 percent of losses, Corruption schemes 20 percent and Fraudulent
Financial Statements 64 percent. The average Asset Misappropriation case loss
was $80 000,00 and took an average of 12 months to detect, the average
Corruption case loss was $500 000,00 and took an average of 18 months to
detect, while the average Financial statement fraud loss was $4 000 000,00 and
took an average of 36 months to detect.
interesting observation in the 2002 Ernst & Young survey, was that African
and Asian respondents were relatively more concerned about corruption and
collusion with organised crime than Europe, the Americas and Australasia. This
could be because African and Asian countries are perceived as being more
corrupt or it could be due to ignorance. If we don't understand something we
obviously cannot comment accurately on it.
TI Bribe Payers Index (BPI)
"It takes two to tango"
"Who is more guilty - a hand that takes or a hand
The fact that much Third World corruption has
important First World participation is also now commonplace. The international
non-government organization Transparency International focuses on corruption in
"international business transactions" and points out that there are First World
givers of many Third World bribes. The BPI ranks leading exporting countries in
terms of the degree to which international companies with their headquarters in
those countries are likely to pay bribes to senior public officials in key
emerging market economies. In that sense, it measures the supply side of
bribery in the countries where the bribes are paid. Countries are ranked on a
mean score from the answers given by respondents to the question "in the
business sectors with which you are most familiar, please indicate how likely
companies from the following countries are to pay or offer bribes to win or
retain business in this country?"
An example of some of the questions that were
How likely is it that senior public officials in
this country [respondent's country of residence] would demand or accept bribes,
e.g. for public tenders, regulations, licensing in the following business
(0 represents high and 10 represents zero perceived
Works and Construction - 1.3
. Arms and
Defence - 1.9
. Oil and Gas -
estate/property - 3.5
Telecoms and Power Generation - 3.7
. Mining -
Other means governments use to gain unfair
advantage - What means do these governments use?
Diplomatic or political pressure - 66 percent
Financial pressure - 66 percent
Commercial, pricing issues etc. - 66 percent
Which three governments do you principally
associate with practices such as those mentioned above [other means - besides
bribery - used to gain unfair advantage in international trade and
- 58 percent
. France - 26 percent
. United Kingdom - 19 percent
Here, there and everywhere
The reminder that corruption exists everywhere, in
private as well as public sectors, in rich countries and poor, is good, because
it helps us avoid unhelpful stereotypes. But to put the discussion in this
context is not to end it. In fact, noting that corruption is widespread may
convey its own unhelpful subliminal messages. It may suggest, for example, that
all forms and instances of corruption are equally harmful. Even more fatal, it
may lead lazy listeners to the conclusion that because corruption exists in
every country, nothing can be done about in our own countries.
Consider the analogy of pollution or disease. Both
exist everywhere on the planet. But the extent and patterns differ radically
across settings. With disease, questions of degree and kind are crucial, and so
is the case with corruption. No one would conclude, for example, that because
pollution and AIDS exist in every country that nothing can or should be done to
Ernst and Young Africa
funds and/or stock were being misappropriated
from our client. The operation in Lagos was not reporting profit, creating
concern for the South African Finance Director who controlled the Nigerian
operation. Although we found the normal internal control weaknesses, typical of
any company, we were informed by the local MD that an oil company had a claim
against our client for product that had not been delivered. Although our client
had POD's (proof of delivery), the oil company had stated that the signatures
were not that of their staff and therefore, claimed they had not received the
stock. The POD's included a company stamp purportedly that of the oil company
as proof of delivery. We
established that the proof of delivery was falsified. The company stamp was a
counterfeit and the signatures on the delivery notes were not that of an
employee of the oil company. We also established that the contract transporters
were stealing stock and falsifying the proof of delivery.
| We spent a week in Nigeria, with a mandate to review the controls
and at the same time, to observe whether
the organization's list of approved suppliers, comparative quotes were not
obtained, and on some invoices the description read 'various works as per
quotation' with no quotation attached. When we tried to contact some of the
vendors we found they did not exist - they were not in the Swaziland telephone
directory and when we visited the physical address that was printed on the
invoices we found either a residence or another business. The purchasing and
stores managers as well as a number of engineers were involved in the
|We were hired by a utility corporation to investigate irregularities
identified in the procurement process. We found that purchase orders were dated
after the goods were delivered, many suppliers were not included on
by a third party. We cannot be more specific as the case is currently
We were involved in investigating allegations of a corrupt purchasing
department as well as huge kickbacks being given to very senior staff
corporation - we were thanked for our work and told that management would take
care of the identified fraud risks. The Managing Director, who engaged us to
perform the health check, was suspended a year after our engagement. The union
has allegedly linked the Managing Director to fraud and corrupt practices,
certain of which we noted and reported as potential exposures. Not only did he
and the board disregard our findings, but he also used our findings for
|We were engaged to perform our fraud prevention 'health check'
methodology at a parastatal organisation. We identified and reported on the
numerous exposures prevalent within the
all my travel costs, which would be reimbursed by the utility. The security
director, just before I flew back to South Africa, suggested I pay him a
'facilitation fee' on any business he gives us - I refused and the result was
that he refused to pay my travel costs that amounted to over US$1000,00. And of
course we did not get any business from the utility!
|I was invited by the security director of a large utility in
Tanzania to do fraud awareness training courses for their staff as well as for
some of their customers. I was to pay
overstated. Further investigations revealed that the clearing agent was bribing
customs officials with the consent of staff from our client to release
containers without inspecting the contents thereof.
|We were hired to investigate allegations at a corporate in Nairobi
and Mombassa. Some of our findings were: Clearing & Forwarding and
Transportation costs were
Appointment of a contractor to construct the car park and to
paint the company office block - The owner of the contractor business is the
company nurse's husband. The company nurse is apparently friendly with the
former Managing Director's wife. The former Managing Director did not disclose
the potential conflict of interest. A competitor's quote was found to be Ksh202
We observed that of 317 suppliers existing on the supplier
list, only 110 (34.7 percent) were approved.
Splitting of orders to remain within predefined authority
Original quotes altered with Tippex.
The page containing the amount was
a different shade of white, the text alignment was
wrong, some of the fonts were incorrect and the price
page had one staple hole while the other pages had two
staple holes, proving that the price page had been
removed and reinserted after being amended. We requested
copies of the quotes from the vendors, which confirmed
Implementing controls to deter fraudsters: In
common with any crime prevention strategy, the key to minimising the risk of
fraud lies in understanding why it occurs, identifying business areas that are
at risk and implementing procedures to address vulnerable areas.
Fraud generally involves the fraudster identifying an
opportunity (a weakness in systems) combined with a perception that the
potential rewards will outweigh the risk should be caught.
Combating fraud risk should have a three-pronged approach:
first, ensuring that the opportunities do not arise, second, ensuring that the
fraudster believes that he will be caught and thirdly, that the consequences of
being caught are severe.
Identifying weaknesses in the system
Weaknesses occur in the company's systems where the controls
designed to prevent people using the system, for an improper or unauthorised
purpose, do not operate effectively. The simplest example would be failure in
access controls that allows unauthorised individuals (i.e. non-members of staff
or known visitors) into the premises or computer network.
Identifying the key controls over the company's assets is best
achieved by understanding the business processes and how different types of
fraud could be perpetrated and by whom. Thereafter, management must identify
the key controls that prevent fraud occuring in each of the business areas and
understand how effective those controls appear to be.
Understanding the business and its processes
It is fundamental for senior management to thoroughly
understand their business and related processes, including the IT environment,
remote and overseas locations, newly acquired parts of the business and
The poorer the understanding of the business, the greater the
risk of fraud, because management responsible for implementing the controls
have not properly understood the risks and what is required (Ernst & Young
International Fraud Survey).
Particular problems tend to arise in high-tech and IT
environments, which are new and not readily understood by senior management, an
in remote or overseas locations where day-to-day involvement is minimal.
Few people think of the risk of fraud posed by employees, but
tend naturally to think of that posed by third parties. In fact, the bulk of
frauds are carried out by insiders - employees, the worst frauds by management
- many of whom have been with the company for many years and are in positions
of trust and authority (Ernst & Young International Fraud Survey).
The risk of false accounting or the theft of cash or assets
needs to be considered for each part of the company's business.
Assessing the risks and identifying the key controls
The controls required for each business
will be specific to that business, depending on the way in
which the department or process functions, the systems in
place, the number of personnel and so on. Producing a list of
the areas in which fraud could occur and thus the controls
that should operate should be a task for management, with
appropriate specialist assistance as deemed necessary. Just
asking: "How would I carry out a fraud and not be detected?"
can be a fruitful exercise. Consider also how much easier it
is to prevent a R1m loss than create an extra R1m of
Many countries try to justify bribery with the
"culturally relativistic" argument. It is often suggested that
corruption is part of the "culture" of many developing countries. In
many countries corruption is blamed on colonial influences.
Indonesia is beset by massive corruption,yet this phenomenon
||originated, not with the Indonesians, but with the Dutch
East India Company. This sounds plausible until we see that Thailand
is the only Asian country that has not been colonised and corruption
is an endemic disease that can be traced back to corrupt government
officials of Thailand's sixteenth century bureaucracy.
Other people try to blame corruption on 'poverty'. If poverty
were the cause of corruption, then it would be hard to explain why wealthy
countries are beset by scandals-very few of which involve anyone who might be
categorised as being "poor".
have shown in the above examples how corrupt
some private and public sector organizations are; yet there are still very
honest people in these countries.
In our opinion corruption is a 'human thing' as opposed to
being caused by cultural, geographic or socio-economic forces. Eighty percent
of most fraud is perpetrated by employees and we have found that within an
organisation 25 percent of
employees have a tendency to steal or cheat, 25 percent
are loyal and honest and the remaining 50 percent
could go either way - given the opportunity and motivation. Power and greed and
great motivators and when employees see their superiors engaging in corrupt
business practices they tend to follow suit.
The 2002 BPI stated that the changes and developments that
contributed to a decrease in levels of corruption were: greater freedom of the
Press, Government anti-corruption investigations, greater transparency in
Government, Improvements in corporate governance and controls of money
What to do if fraud it suspected
Creating and effective fraud contingency plan
However comprehensive and impressive it may appear to be, no
fraud preventing or detection system can ever be 100 per cent effective. The
determined fraudster will always
find a way around it, particularly if he or she regards the potential
consequences of being caught as slight compared to the potential gain.
When the unthinkable happens and a fraud perpetrated by a
third party, an employee or, worse still, a senior member of management is
suspected, what do you do next? Whom should you tell and whom should you not
tell? Who should investigate and what powers would the investigators be able to
exercise? What should you do with regard to the suspect? What are you going to
do with any information that is obtained? How can you go about getting your
Many organisations have disaster recovery procedures in place
in the event of fire, bomb explosion or major computer failure. Few have
established and agreed procedures for handling suspected fraud. Yet if the
suspicion and supporting evidence are handled in the wrong way, considerable
damage can be done to the organisation's finances and reputation.
Matters to be considered and incorporated in a fraud contingency plan include:
Thoroughly understand all business processes.
Identify fraud risks in each area from management, employees, third parties or
Identify the most critical risks according to severity and likely frequency.
Implement appropriate controls.
Implement indirect controls throughout the organisation to change the
corporate culture and encourage openness and reporting.
. Agree on the
Determine who will lead the investigation.
Determine objectives and powers of the investigation team.
. Work out
investigation process and techniques.
Working with the police.
Reporting and publicity.
Not every suspicion may appear to merit the mobilisation of
the full plan. But the initial suspicion may prove to be only the tip of the
iceberg, with much greater problems as yet unknown. In any event, activating
the fraud contingency plan will ensure that best practice is followed,
irrespective of how material the suspected fraud turns out to be.
Electronic copies of the 2002 Ernst &
Young International Fraud Survey and the 'Fraud Risk &
Prevention' booklet are available at no charge. Simply contact
either Mario Fazekas via e-mail on [email protected] or Wayne
on [email protected] and let them know which items you
Transparency International has also introduced The Corruption Fighters' Tool
Kit, which presents a large number of innovative anti-corruption tools
developed and implemented by civil society to decrease corruption, and makes
the tools available to interested parties all over the globe. The Niger TI
office, as an example, launched 3 Anti-Corruption
in Africa - Corruption Watch
Tell us your
The extent to which the tentacles of corruption have touched
all levels of African society is causing widespread alarm. The continent's
political and business leaders have reacted with a degree of ambivalence.
In June 1999, this magazine published a 20-page feature outlining the disturbing incidence of
corruption in the continent. Three years later, the situation is worse.
Business in Africa Magazine is determined to play an important role in 'naming
and shaming' corrupt individuals and organisations in Africa. If you have
experienced corruption or have any information relating to its practice and
wish to share it with our readers, please email:
[email protected]. Alternatively you can write to: The
Managing Editor. Business in Africa Magazine. P.O. Box 1357, Rivonia, 2128.
South Africa. Our new Corruption Watch column to be introduced in 2003 will
regularly track and highlight incidents of corruption in Africa.
Publisher, Business in Africa
Television Sketches in order to raise awareness about the problem of
corruption in Niger. The films covered three sensitive fields in which
corruption is viewed as a serious problem: health, education and customs. The
one film ends with the following motto: "Let's denounce and ban corruption."